Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries.
Pushing the Pace: Progress and Challenges in Fighting Childhood Pneumonia examines recent gains in reducing child deaths from pneumonia. This report advances our understanding of the burden of childhood pneumonia and its toll within the context of the leading killers of children; global trends in funding to address pneumonia; and health system factors involved in the effective prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pneumonia.
When unaccounted-for group-level characteristics affect an outcome variable, traditional linear regression is inefficient and can be biased. The random- and fixed-effects estimators (RE and FE, respectively) are two competing methods that address these problems. While each estimator controls for otherwise unaccounted-for effects, the two estimators require different assumptions. Health researchers tend to favor RE estimation, while researchers from some other disciplines tend to favor FE estimation. In addition to RE and FE, an alternative method called within-between (WB) was suggested by Mundlak in 1978, although is utilized infrequently.