Rapidly rising global rates of chronic diseases portend a consequent rise in ESRD. Despite this, kidney disease is not included in the list of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted by the United Nations for 25% reduction by year 2025. In an effort to accurately report the trajectory and pattern of global growth of maintenance dialysis, we present the change in prevalence and incidence from 1990 to 2010. Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 epidemiologic database. The results are on the basis of an analysis of data from worldwide national and regional renal disease registries and detailed systematic literature review for years 1980–2010. Incidence and prevalence estimates of provision of maintenance dialysis from this database were updated using a negative binomial Bayesian meta-regression tool for 187 countries. Results indicate substantial growth in utilization of maintenance dialysis in almost all world regions. Changes in population structure, changes in aging, and the worldwide increase in diabetes mellitus and hypertension explain a significant portion, but not all, of the increase because increased dialysis provision also accounts for a portion of the rise. These findings argue for the importance of inclusion of kidney disease among NCD targets for reducing premature death throughout the world.


Thomas B, Wulf S, Bikbov B, Perico N, Cortinovis M, de Vaccaro KC, Flaxman A, Peterson H, Delossantos A, Haring D, Mehrotra R, Himmelfarb J, Remuzzi G, Murray C, Naghavi M. Maintenance dialysis throughout the world in years 1990 and 2010. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2015 Jul 24. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2014101017.