Rotavirus infection is the global leading cause of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years. This report builds on findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, a cross-sectional study that measured diarrheal diseases and their etiologic agents.
Few data are available on the supply and consumption of nutrients at the country level. To address this data gap, we aimed to create a database that provides information on availability (i.e., supply) of 156 nutrients across 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2013.
Following the economic crisis in Greece in 2010, the country's ongoing austerity measures include a substantial contraction of health-care expenditure, with reports of subsequent negative health consequences. The findings of increases in total deaths and accelerated population ageing call for specific focus from health policy makers to ensure the health-care system is equipped to meet the needs of the people in Greece.
Political, economic, and epidemiological changes in Brazil have affected health and the health system. Health improved from 1990 to 2016, but improvements and disease burden varied between states. An epidemiological transition toward non-communicable diseases and related risks occurred nationally, but later in some states, while interpersonal violence grew as a health concern.
This study used the estimates of the GBD to summarise the state of health in Spain in 2016 and report trends in mortality and morbidity from 1990 to 2016.
Snakebite envenoming is a frequently overlooked cause of mortality and morbidity. Identifying exact populations vulnerable to the most severe outcomes of snakebite envenoming at a subnational level is important for prioritizing new data collection and collation, reinforcing envenoming treatment, existing health care systems, and deploying currently available and future interventions.
Improving childhood vaccine coverage is a priority for global health, but challenging in low and middle-income countries. This study provides evidence that determinants should be approached in the context of relevant outcomes, and evidence of specific determinants that could have the greatest impact if targeted.
As Indonesia moves to provide health coverage for all citizens, understanding patterns of morbidity and mortality is important to allocate resources and address inequality.
This study underscores that, with adequate resources and technical expertise, collecting data for quality indicators at scale in low- and middle-income countries is possible.
The protozoan Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrhea morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. Our findings show that the substantial short-term burden of diarrhea from Cryptosporidium infection on childhood growth and well-being is an underestimate of the true burden.
Animal bites and stings contribute significantly to mortality in certain parts of the world. India accounts for the highest number of snakebites and related mortality globally. We report on mortality due to bite or sting of a venomous animal from a population-based study in the Indian state of Bihar which estimated the causes of death using verbal autopsy.
Despite the long-standing recognition of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) across many settings, there is surprisingly poor information about its geographical distribution over time and trends in its population prevalence and incidence. The inclusion of mortality and morbidity data related to drug-resistant infections into the annual Global Burden of Disease Study should help fill this policy void.
The increasing burden due to cancer and other non-communicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required. This study assessed the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus.
Quality of obstetric care may not be constant within clinics and hospitals. Night shifts and weekends experience understaffing and other organizational hurdles in comparison with the weekday morning shifts, and this may influence the risk of maternal deaths. This study analyzed the hourly variation of maternal mortality within Mexican health institutions.
Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of mortality among children under 5 in Latin America. This study examines the delivery of timely and appropriate antibiotics for neonatal sepsis among facilities participating in the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative project.
A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016.
We report on incidence of drowning deaths and related contextual factors in children from a population-based study in the Indian state of Bihar which estimated the causes of death using verbal autopsy (VA).
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm with substantial morbidity and mortality. A comprehensive description of the global burden of MM is needed to help direct health policy, resource allocation, research, and patient care.
The effect of the ongoing war in Yemen on maternal and child health (MCH) has not been comprehensively assessed. Providing a situational analysis at the governorate level is critical to assist in planning a response and allocating resources. We used multiple national- and governorate-level data sources to provide estimates of 12 relevant MCH indicators in 2016 around child vaccination, and child and maternal nutritional status, and the change in these estimates for the period 2013–2016.
Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health, and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries.
Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040.
Results-based aid (RBA) is increasingly used to incentivize action in health. In Mesoamerica, the region consisting of southern Mexico and Central America, the RBA project known as the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) was designed to target disparities in maternal and child health, focusing on the poorest 20% of the population across the region.
Several studies have measured health outcomes in the United States, but none have provided a comprehensive assessment of patterns of health by state. This study uses the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) to report trends in the burden of disease, injuries, and risk factors at the state level from 1990 to 2016.
Infectious diseases are mostly preventable but still pose a public health threat in the United States, where estimates of infectious diseases mortality are not available at the county level. In this study, we estimate age-standardized mortality rates and trends by county from 1980 to 2014 from lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, meningitis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis.