Dengue is a systemic viral infection transmitted between humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Here we undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue occurrence worldwide, and use a formal modeling framework to map the global distribution of dengue risk. We then pair the resulting risk map with detailed longitudinal information from dengue cohort studies and population surfaces to infer the public health burden of dengue in 2010.
Hypertension is an important and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. We estimate trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in US counties using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in five two-year waves from 1999–2008 including 26,349 adults aged 30 years and older and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1997–2009 including 1,283,722 adults aged 30 years and older.
It is perhaps surprising to state that we have an extremely poor knowledge of the global distribution of the vast majority of infectious diseases. Here we argue that this information gulf has serious implications for global public health surveillance and that too little attention is given to spatial epidemiology in international preparedness planning.
The United Kingdom has provided universal health care and public health programming for more than six decades. To guide future policymaking in the UK, it is important to analyze trends in population health over time. Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), researchers examined three critical questions: what are the patterns of health loss in the UK, what are the leading preventable risks that explain some of those patterns, and how do UK outcomes compare to a set of comparable countries in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere in 1990 and 2010.
These findings suggest that greater reductions in malaria morbidity and health gains for children may be achieved with ITNs and IRS combined beyond the protection offered by IRS or ITNs alone.
The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans.
Measuring the survival of human immunodeficiency virus–infected adult patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs is complicated by short observation periods and loss to follow-up. We synthesized data from treatment cohorts in sub-Saharan Africa to estimate survival over 5 years after initiation of ART.
The prevalence of ever smoking and current smoking, smoking initiation, and exposure to second-hand smoking decreased over time. Overall, willingness to stop smoking, supporting smoking bans, and receiving information about the dangers of smoking increased over time.
Healthy life expectancy, or HALE, is a measure of average population health summarizing both mortality and non‐fatal outcomes. HALE is used for comparisons of health across countries or for measuring change over time. These comparisons can shed light on key questions about how morbidity worsens or improves as mortality declines.
Measurement of the global burden of disease using disability‐adjusted life years (DALYs) requires disability weights that measure health losses for all non‐fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been vigorous debate over the definition and measurement of these weights. The primary objective was a comprehensive re‐estimation of disability weights through a large‐scale, population‐based, empirical investigation in which judgments about health loss associated with many causes were elicited from the general public in diverse communities. This is a marked improvement over previous efforts, which relied solely upon judgments from a small group of health professionals.
In this paper, results on years lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) are combined to examine the overall burden of disease across 291 diseases and injuries by country for the period 1990 to 2010.
The goal of this research was to estimate deaths and years of lives lost (YLLs) by age, sex, and region for 235 causes at two points in time – 1990 and 2010. This information can be used to better inform global efforts to assess whether society is or is not making progress in reducing the burden of premature – and especially avoidable – mortality.
The goal of this study is to calculate what proportion of deaths or disability‐adjusted life years (DALYs) can be attributed to specific risk factors, holding other independent factors unchanged. Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by identifying which risks make the greatest contribution to poor health. No complete revision of global burden of disease caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time.
Individuals, households, and health systems devote enormous resources to curing, preventing, and eliminating non‐fatal, disabling health conditions. Therefore, it is essential that some form of measuring and tracking non‐fatal burdens be available for policy and planning purposes.
The number of deaths in each age and sex group for countries, regions, and the world is a critical starting point for assessing the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). A careful estimation of deaths and mortality rates by age and sex is essential to assess progress, improve health, and extend the lives of people around the world. Information about mortality rates and causes of death at different ages, especially premature mortality, is also an important impetus for public policy action.
Between 1990 and 2010, the U.S ranking in neonatal mortality slipped from 29th to 45th among countries globally. Our objective is to measure the extent to which trends and subnational variation in early neonatal mortality reflect differences in the prevalence of risk factors (gestational age and birth weight) compared to differences in clinical care.
This engenders the hypothesis that population density positively affects coverage rates of health services. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly for some services at a local level, but not at a national level.
In this working paper, we review past work on health inequalities and propose concrete ways in which countries can implement systems to measure, monitor and ultimately reduce inequalities in health.
This paper estimates the causal effect of distance to health facility on institutional delivery in rural India, taking into account the endogenous placement of the health facility. We find that women living closer to health facilities are more likely to give birth at health facility.
While many Americans reported losing weight between 2008 and 2009, the actual prevalence of obesity in the United States increased over this time period, according to researchers at IHME. Results from the study “In denial: misperceptions of weight change among adults in the United States” show that public health officials should interpret self-reported weight losses with caution.
New data published in the study “Developing a comprehensive time series of GDP per capita for 210 countries from 1950 to 2015” track gross domestic product (GDP) over six decades. Researchers from IHME used models to fill in gaps in time and across 210 countries for existing GDP datasets and created two new GDP time series.
In 2009, the influenza vaccination coverage level in the United States was 69% in adults 65 years and older but only 32% in adults between the ages of 18 and 64. This study was conducted to inform future vaccination strategies by identifying the characteristics of people who are less likely to receive influenza vaccination.
Malaria caused over 1.2 million deaths worldwide in 2010, twice the number found in the most recent comprehensive study of the disease. While malaria is traditionally considered a childhood disease, this study shows that there is a significant disease burden in adults.
This study proposes five general principles for cause of death model development, validation, and reporting and details an analytical tool – the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) – that explores a large number of possible models to estimate trends in causes of death. CODEm produces better estimates of cause of death trends than previous methods.
For policymaking, planning, and advocacy, decision-makers need to know how funding to developing countries for health improvement changed in the wake of the global financial crisis. According to IHME researchers, development assistance for health (DAH) continued to grow in 2011, but the rate of growth was low.