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ABSTRACT

The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

METHODS

Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life years have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990–2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organized into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: hand-washing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesized with a Bayesian metaregression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on metaregressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.

FINDINGS

All risks combined account for 57.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55.8–58.5) of deaths and 41.6% (40.1–43.0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87.9% (86.5−89.3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11.3 million deaths and 241.4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10.4 million deaths and 208.1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1.7 million deaths and 176.9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6.1 million deaths and 143.5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5.5 million deaths and 141.5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4.4 million deaths and 134.0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time.

In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and hand-washing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, North Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and South and East Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in North Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.

INTERPRETATION

Behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs, providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioral risk factors, behavioral and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

Citation: 

Forouzanfar MH, Alexander L, Anderson HR, Bachman VF, Biryukov S, Brauer M, Burnett R, Casey D, Coates MM, Cohen A, Delwiche K, Estep K, Frostad JJ, KC A, Kyu HH, Moradi-Lakeh M, Ng M, Slepak EL, Thomas BA, Wagner J, Aasvang GM*, Abbafati C*, Abbasoglu Ozgoren A*, Abd-Allah F*, Abera SF*, Aboyans V*, Abraham B*, Abraham JP*, Abubakar I *, Abu-Rmeileh NME*, Aburto T C*, Achoki T*, Adelekan A*, Adofo K*, Adou AK*, Adsuar JC*, Afshin A*, Agardh EE*, Al Khabouri MJ*, Al Lami FH*, Alam S*, Alasfoor D*, Albittar MI*, Alegretti MA*, Aleman AV*, Alemu ZA*, Alfonso-Cristancho R*, Alhabib S*, Ali R*, Ali MK*, Alla F*, Allebeck P*, Allen PJ*, Alsharif U*, Alvarez E*, Alvis-Guzman N*, Amankwaa AA*, Amare AT*, Ameh EA*, Ameli O*, Amini H*, Ammar W*, Anderson BO*, Antonio CT*, Anwari P*, Argeseanu Cunningham S*, Arnlöv J*, Arsic Arsenijevic VS*, Artaman A*, Asghar RJ*, Assadi R*, Atkins LS*, Atkinson C*, Avila MA*, Awuah B*, Badawi A*, Bahit MC*, Bakfalouni T*, Balakrishnan K*, Balalla S*, Balu R*, 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P*, Gibney KB*, Gillum RF*, Ginawi IAM*, Giroud M*, Giussani G*, Goenka S*, Goginashvili K*, Gomez Dantes H*, Gona P*, Gonzalez de Cosio T*, González-Castell D*, Gotay CC*, Goto A*, Gouda HN*, Guerrant RL*, Gugnani HC*, Guillemin F*, Gunnell D*, Gupta R*, Gupta R*, Gutiérrez RA*, Hafezi-Nejad N*, Hagan H*, Hagstromer M*, Halasa YA*, Hamadeh RR*, Hammami M*, Hankey GJ*, Hao Y*, Harb HL*, Haregu T*, Haro J*, Havmoeller R*, Hay SI*, Hedayati MT*, Heredia-Pi IB*, Hernandez L*, Heuton KR*, Heydarpour P*, Hijar M*, Hoek HW*, Hoffman HJ*, Hornberger JC*, Hosgood H*, Hoy DG*, Hsairi M*, Hu G*, Hu H*, Huang C*, Huang JJ*, Hubbell BJ*, Huiart L*, Husseini A*, Iannarone ML*, Iburg KM*, Idrisov BT*, Ikeda N*, Innos K*, Inoue M*, Islami F*, Ismayilova S*, Jacobsen KH*, Jansen HA*, Jarvis DL*, Jassal SK*, Jauregui A*, Jayaraman S*, Jeemon P*, Jensen PN*, Jha V*, Jiang F*, Jiang G*, Jiang Y*, Jonas JB*, Juel K*, Kan H*, Kany Roseline SS*, Karam NE*, Karch A*, Karema CK*, Karthikeyan G*, Kaul A*, 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C*, Marks GB*, Martin RV*, Marzan MB*, Mashal MT*, Masiye F*, Mason-Jones AJ*, Matsushita K*, Matzopoulos R*, Mayosi BM*, Mazorodze TT*, McKay AC*, McKee M*, McLain A*, Meaney PA*, Medina C*, Mehndiratta M*, Mejia-Rodriguez F*, Mekonnen W*, Melaku YA*, Meltzer M*, Memish ZA*, Mendoza W*, Mensah GA*, Meretoja A*, Mhimbira FA*, Micha R*, Miller TR*, Mills EJ*, Mishra S*, Mohamed IN*, Mohammad KA*, Mokdad AH*, Mola GL*, Monasta L*, Montañez Hernandez JC*, Montico M*, Moore AR*, Morawska L*, Mori R*, Moschandreas J*, Moturi WN*, Mozaffarian D*, Mueller UO*, Mukaigawara M*, Mullany EC*, Murthy KS*, Naghavi M*, Nahas Z*, Naheed A*, Naidoo KS*, Naldi L*, Nand D*, Nangia V*, Narayan KMV*, Nash D*, Neal B*, Nejjari C*, Neupane SP*, Newton CR*, Ngalesoni FN*, Ngirabega J*, Nguyen G*, Nguyen NT*, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ*, Nisar MI*, Nogueira JR*, Nolla JM*, Nolte S*, Norheim OF*, Norman RE*, Norrving B*, Nyakarahuka L*, Oh I*, Ohkubo T*, Olusanya BO*, Omer SB*, Opio J*, Orozco R*, Pagcatipunan Jr., RS*, Pain AW*, Pandian JD*, Panelo CA*, Papachristou C*, Park E*, Parry CD*, Paternina Caicedo AJ*, Patten SB*, Paul VK*, Pavlin BI*, Pearce N*, Pedraza LS*, Pedroza A*, Pejin Stokic L*, Pekericli A*, Pereira DM*, Perez-Padilla R*, Perez-Ruiz F*, Perico N*, Perry SAL*, Pervaiz A*, Pesudovs K*, Peterson CB*, Petzold M*, Phillips MR*, Phua HP *, Plass D*, Poenaru D*, Polanczyk GV*, Polinder S*, Pond CD*, Pope C*, Pope D*, Popova S*, Pourmalek F*, Powles J*, Prabhakaran D*, Prasad NM*, Qato DM*, Quezada AD*, Quistberg DA*, Racapé L*, Rafay A*, Rahimi K*, Rahimi-Movaghar V*, Rahman S*, Raju M*, Rakovac I*, Rana SM*, Rao M*, Razavi H*, Reddy KS*, Refaat AH*, Rehm J*, Remuzzi G*, Ribeiro AL*, Riccio PM*, Richardson L*, Riederer A*, Robinson M*, Roca A*, Rodriguez A*, Rojas-Rueda D*, Romieu I*, Ronfani L*, Room R*, Roy N*, Ruhago GM*, Rushton L*, Sabin N*, Sacco RL*, Saha S*, Sahathevan R*, Sahraian M*, Salomon JA*, Salvo D*, Sampson UK*, Sanabria JR*, Sanchez L*, Sánchez-Pimienta TG*, Sanchez-Riera L*, Sandar L*, Santos IS*, Sapkota A*, Satpathy M*, Saunders JE*, Sawhney M*, Saylan MI*, Scarborough P*, Schmidt JC*, Schneider IJC*, Schöttker B*, Schwebel DC*, Scott JG*, Seedat S*, Sepanlou SG*, Serdar B*, Servan-Mori EE*, Shaddick G*, Shahraz S*, Shamah Levy T*, Shangguan S*, She J*, Sheikhbahaei S*, Shibuya K*, Shin HH*, Shinohara Y*, Shiri R*, Shishani K*, Shiue I*, Sigfusdottir ID*, Silberberg DH*, Simard EP*, Sindi S*, Singh A*, Singh GM*, Singh JA*, Skirbekk V*, Sliwa K*, Soljak M*, Soneji S*, Søreide K*, Soshnikov S*, Sposato LA*, Sreeramareddy CT*, Stapelberg NJC*, Stathopoulou V*, Steckling N*, Stein DJ*, Stein MB*, Stephens N*, Stöckl H*, Straif K*, Stroumpoulis K*, Sturua L*, Sunguya BF*, Swaminathan S*, Swaroop M*, Sykes BL*, Tabb KM*, Takahashi K *, Talongwa RT*, Tandon N*, Tanne D*, Tanner M*, Tavakkoli M*, Te Ao BJ*, Teixeira CM*, Téllez Rojo MM*, Temesgen AM*, Terkawi AS*, Texcalac-Sangrador JL *, Thackway SV*, Thomson B*, Thorne-Lyman AL*, Thrift AG*, Thurston GD*, Tillmann T*, Tobollik M*, Tonelli M*, Topouzis F*, Towbin JA*, Toyoshima H*, Traebert J*, Tran BX*, Trasande L*, Trillini M*, Trujillo U*, Tsala Dimbuene Z*, Tsilimbaris M*, Tuzcu E*, Uchendu US*, Ukwaja KN*, Uzun SB*, van de Vijver S*, Van Dingenen R*, van Gool CH*, van Os J*, Varakin YY*, Vasankari TJ*, Vasconcelos AN*, Vavilala MS*, Veerman LJ*, Velasquez-Melendez G*, Venketasubramanian N*, Vijayakumar L*, Villalpando S*, Violante FS*, Vlassov VV*, Vollset S*, Wagner GR*, Waller SG*, Wallin MT*, Wan X*, Wang H*, Wang J*, Wang L*, Wang W*, Wang Y*, Warouw TS*, Watts CH*, Weichenthal S*, Weiderpass E*, Weintraub RG*, Werdecker A*, Wessells K*, Westerman R*, Whiteford HA*, Wilkinson JD*, Williams HC*, Williams TN*, Woldeyohannes SM*, Wolfe CDA*, Wong JQ*, Woolf AD*, Wright JL*, Wurtz B*, Xu G*, Yan LL*, Yang G*, Yano Y*, Ye P*, Yenesew M*, Yentür GK*, Yip P*, Yonemoto N*, Yoon S*, Younis MZ*, Younoussi Z*, Yu C*, Zaki ME*, Zhao Y*, Zheng Y*, Zhou M*, Zhu J*, Zhu S*, Zou X*, Zunt JR*, Lopez AD †, Vos T †, Murray CJL †‡. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. 2015 Sep 11. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61455-6.

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