Vaccine resource tracking systems

Published September 22, 2014, in BMC Health Services Research (opens in a new window)


From 1999 to 2010, annual disbursements of development assistance for health for vaccinations increased from $0.5 billion to $2.0 billion (all financial values USD 2010). In its 2012 Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), the World Health Assembly recommended establishing a comprehensive vaccination resource tracking system to better understand the source and recipients of these funds, and ultimately their impact on outcomes. This systematic review aims to respond to the GVAP recommendation in reviewing and assessing the state of the data and literature on vaccination resource tracking.


We scrutinized all relevant vaccination resource tracking systems identified in the literature and by practitioners in the field. We examined schemes used elsewhere in the health sector and by other sectors. Informant interviews were also conducted to determine what data exist and how they might be utilized. With this information, we completed a qualitative assessment of existing approaches to vaccination resources tracking.


Tracking systems provide information about some vaccine-related activity in the majority of low- and middle- income countries. Data are generally available for the period of 2006-2010. Levels of granularity vary. Interviewees were concerned about the degree of rigor used to validate the data and the lack of verification. Data are often presented in tabular form, which may be unwieldy for non-technical audiences.


The schemes currently in place to track the resources available for vaccinations were fairly advanced relative to other mechanisms in the health sector. Nonetheless, the coverage, validity, and accessibility of vaccination resource tracking data could be ameliorated. Establishing improved feedback loops and verification mechanisms that connect country-level administrators and the international organizations that support reporting efforts would enhance data quality.


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Leach-Kemon K, Graves CM, Johnson EK, Lavado RF, Hanlon M, Haakenstad A. Vaccine resource tracking systems. BMC Health Services Research. 2014 Sept 22; 14:421. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-421.