Global Burden of Disease (GBD)

The GBD study is the largest and most comprehensive effort to quantify health loss across places and over time, so health systems can be improved and disparities eliminated.

607 billion+ highly standardized and comprehensive estimates measure health outcomes and systems.
459 health outcomes and risk factors provide a powerful basis for insights on global health trends and challenges.
204 countries and territories, plus dozens of subnational locations show trends at regional, national, and local levels.
12,000 individuals from over 160 countries and territories collaborate in vetting GBD data sources and estimates.

GBD 2021 capstone publications

Capstone publications provide a broad view of the findings from each round of GBD.

Scientific Publication

Global burden and strength of evidence for 88 risk factors in 204 countries and 811 subnational locations, 1990–2021

Scientific Publication

Burden of disease scenarios for 204 countries and territories, 2022–2050

Scientific Publication

Global incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 371 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1990–2021

Scientific Publication

Global burden of 288 causes of death and life expectancy decomposition in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1990–2021

Scientific Publication

Global fertility in 204 countries and territories, 1950-2021, with forecasts to 2100

Scientific Publication

Global age-sex-specific mortality, life expectancy, and population estimates in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1950–2021, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

All GBD publications

Scientific Publication

Burden of disease scenarios for 204 countries and territories, 2022–2050

Scientific Publication

Global burden and strength of evidence for 88 risk factors in 204 countries and 811 subnational locations, 1990–2021

Scientific Publication

Global incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 371 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1990–2021

Scientific Publication

Global burden associated with 85 pathogens in 2019

Scientific Publication

Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality burden of non-COVID lower respiratory infections and aetiologies, 1990-2021

Scientific Publication

Global burden of 288 causes of death and life expectancy decomposition in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1990–2021

Scientific Publication

Global fertility in 204 countries and territories, 1950-2021, with forecasts to 2100

Scientific Publication

Global, regional, and national age-specific progress towards the 2020 milestones of the WHO End TB Strategy