Burden of Proof

Updated January 9, 2024

The Burden of Proof tool shows the strength of evidence between health risks and outcomes, indicating the likelihood of certain behaviors to have an impact on health. The tool uses a novel star-rating system to rank each pair from one to five, based on both the magnitude of risk shown by studies to date, as well as the consistency of findings between those studies. 

Explore the star ratings and risk-outcome scores for outcomes including cancers, heart disease, and stroke related to seven health risks: 

  • childhood sexual abuse
  • diet high in red meat
  • diet low in vegetables
  • high systolic blood pressure
  • intimate partner violence
  • secondhand smoke
  • smoking
Open data visual


Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). Burden of Proof. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington, 2022. Available from https://vizhub.healthdata.org/burden-of-proof/. (Accessed [INSERT DATE])

Browser notes

  • Use the latest version of Chrome, Edge, Safari, or Firefox.
  • Use Ctrl+0 to reset the browser zoom. Sometimes having the browser zoomed in or out interferes with the layout or a few mouse-dependent properties.
  • If the visualization isn't loading or looks distorted, try clearing your cache. See http://www.wikihow.com/Clear-Your-Browser's-Cache for pointers.

Want help using this data visual?

The tool currently displays risk-outcome pairs related to the Burden of Proof manuscript and related risk-outcome score papers. There will be a second release that will include a larger set of risk-outcome pairs at a later date.

  • Download the data as a .csv in the top right corner of the tool
  • Watch our video tutorial (available in multiple languages)

Watch tutorial


Scientific Publication

Health effects associated with chewing tobacco: a Burden of Proof study