COVID-19 was first identified in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic within months. It became the second-leading cause of death in 2021, causing a global decline in life expectancy.

Photo by Reuters/Alisha Jucevic.

10 million deaths due to COVID-19 have gone unreported.
16.5K deaths were reported daily at the peak of the pandemic in January 2021.
50% of the world was fully vaccinated against COVID-19 at the end of 2021.
63% of those with long COVID during the first two years of the pandemic were female.

Interactive data visuals

Interactive Data Visual

Pandemic Recovery Survey

Use this tool to understand the effects of the pandemic on health care and health seeking behavior, attitudes and practices around vaccinations, education, and household financial and food security.

Interactive Data Visual

COVID-19 Projections

Explore forecasts of demand for hospital services, reported and excess deaths due to COVID-19, rates of infection and testing, and the impact of social distancing and mask use.

Interactive Data Visual

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy

View areas of the US that would benefit most from increased vaccination acceptance.

Download our COVID-19 estimates

View the data from our last round of regular estimates and projections for cases, hospitalizations, and deaths due to COVID-19, published in December, 2022.

Supporting documents

Reference scenario estimates

80% mask use scenario estimates

Antiviral access scenario estimates

Download past estimates

As the pandemic unfolded from 2020 to 2022, we updated our estimates frequently to account for new information and improved methodology. With each update, we also adjusted our estimates for past dates to make them as accurate as possible. These archival files provide a snapshot of our estimates at different moments in time.  

See archive

Scientific Publication

Past SARS-CoV-2 infection protection against re-infection


Scientific Publication

Global age-sex-specific mortality, life expectancy, and population estimates in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1950–2021, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

Scientific Publication

Assessing COVID-19 pandemic policies and behaviours and their economic and educational trade-offs across US states from Jan 1, 2020, to July 31, 2022: an observational analysis

COVID-19 policy briefings by country

Policy briefings summarize improvements to the model, the current COVID-19 situation, trends in drivers of transmission, and future projections globally, in each of the WHO regions, at the country level, and in US states.

Read policy briefings



Disease burden: successes and challenges

Since 2010, the world succeeded in halving the burden of many diseases such as HIV/AIDS and diarrhea and slashing the disease burden from injuries by a quarter after accounting for differences in age and population size across countries.



Q&A: Examining the leading causes of death globally

The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on health trends in 2020 and 2021, becoming the second-leading cause of death around the world. Dr. Mohsen Naghavi shares these findings and more from the latest Global Burden of Disease study.


Online EU-US conference on Long COVID

IHME faculty member Theo Vos presents on the research agenda for long COVID as part of the EU-US Conference on Long COVID.