Burden of Proof

We investigated which health recommendations have the biggest impact, so everyone from health-conscious individuals to policymakers can understand the strength of evidence behind certain risks and outcomes.

Photo by Reuters/Ari Jalal.

180 pairs of health risks and outcomes were analyzed.
112 pairs received only a 1- or 2-star rating, meaning a 0-15% change in likelihood of a health outcome.
8 pairs received a 5-star rating, indicating more than 85% change in likelihood of a health outcome.
48% of global disease burden is associated with modifiable risk factors.

Interactive data visuals

Interactive Data Visual

Burden of Proof

Compare strength of evidence for health risks and outcomes.

Datasets in our catalog

Visit the Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx) to download our estimates and data sources for the Burden of Proof.

Scientific Publication

The Burden of Proof studies: assessing the evidence of risks

We present an introduction to the Burden of Proof framework and in-depth description of the methodology.


Scientific Publication

Health effects associated with chewing tobacco: a Burden of Proof study



Burden of Proof | Global Health Insights

IHME Director Dr. Christopher Murray explains a new star-rating system used to determine the strength of evidence behind certain health risks.


Tutorials: Burden of Proof

Learn how to use the Burden of Proof tool to explore the strength of evidence between health risks and outcomes, indicating the likelihood of certain behaviors have an impact on health. 


Health topic